Freedom of information Exempt information. The First-tier Tribunal's judgment, finding in favour of non-disclosure of the second defendant Ministry of Justice's Minimising and Managing Physical Restraint training manual, could not possibly be said to be irrational, perverse or inadequately reasoned. The Court of Appeal, Civil Division, in dismissing the appellant's appeal, further held that the category of case where the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, as an unincorporated treaty, might be relevant in English law did not apply, as the meaning of the words 'public interest' was not in doubt.
Human rights Infringement of human rights. The Court of Justice of the European Union ruled that art 47 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union did not preclude national legislation, which made the exercise of a judicial remedy by a person stating that his right to protection of personal data guaranteed by of the European Parliament and Council had been infringed, subject to the prior exhaustion of the available administrative remedies, provided that the practical arrangements for the exercise of such remedies did not disproportionately affect the right to an effective remedy before a court referred to in that article.
Telecommunications Interception of communications. There were several reasons a reference to the Court of Justice of the European Union either had to or might be made in relation to the regime concerning the acquisition by the third to fifth respondent security and intelligence agencies of bulk communications data. However, the Investigatory Powers Tribunal found that it was not necessary to refer any questions in respect of bulk personal data.
Land registration Rectification of register. The alteration of the register to reflect the setting aside of a discharge of a charge constituted bringing the register up to date, making it unnecessary for the claimant to establish that the alteration had not affected the defendants' title to the property, that they by fraud or lack of proper care had caused or substantially contributed to the mistake, or that it would have been unjust not to make the alteration. Accordingly, the Court of Appeal, Civil Division, partially allowed the claimant's appeal.
Libel and slander Defamatory statement. The claimant's claim for slander against two police officers failed. The Queen's Bench Division held that she had failed to prove that all but one of the words complained of could have been published or said by the officers and had also failed to prove that the publication complained of caused serious harm to her reputation, as required by s1 of the .
Libel and slander Defamatory words. The claimant was entitled to damages for libel and harassment by the defendant in publishing a website and sending a person to his home. However, the Queen's Bench Division, held that neither party was entitled to damages for breaches of the by the other, as the judgment provided a sufficient record of the inaccuracies and there was no evidence of distress.
Environment Environmental information. A purposive application of reg 2(1) of the Environmental Information Regulations 2004, , required information to be considered in its context and not restricted by what the information was specifically, directly or immediately about. Accordingly, the Court of Appeal, Civil Division, dismissed the appellant Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy's appeal, as the Upper Tribunal (Administrative Appeals Chamber) had been correct to find that a project assessment review had been 'on' the government's smart meter programme for the purposes of reg 2(1)(c).
European Union Intellectual property rights. The Court of Justice of the European Union dismissed the appeals by Novartis Europharm Ltd against two decisions of the General Court of the European Union by which the General Court had dismissed its actions against two decisions of the European Commission granting marketing authorisations for the medicinal products for human use 'Zoledronic acid Teva Pharma - zoledronic acid' and 'Zoledronic acid Hospira - zoledronic acid' Aclasta', respectively.
Confidential information Disclosure. The Chancery Division allowed an application by the claimant, Sir Cliff Richard, for an answer to a question concerning the sources of a journalist working for the first defendant BBC. The issue arose in the context of a raid carried out by the second defendant police force at the claimant's home, which had been extensively covered by the BBC, and which had resulted in no further investigation into the claimant. The court held that, balancing the appropriate factors, the interests of the claimant outweighed those of the journalist and his source.
Freedom of information Information. The Court of Appeal, Civil Division, dismissed the appellant Department of Health's appeal against the decision of the Upper Tribunal (Administrative Appeals Chamber) (the UT), upholding decisions requiring disclosure of the contents of the ministerial diary of an MP. The UT had not been wrong to accept that the public interest balancing exercise had been properly conducted and it had correctly held that the diary had been 'held' by the department for the purposes of the .